Categories. IP-rights protect a mixed bag of intangible objects and achievements. From trade marks to topographies of semiconductor products and from biotechnological inventions to musical symphonies or operas. In short, intellectual property has a broad reach: from chemistry to industrial design and from art to kitsch. To be able to see the contours of a forest through these trees, a division of intellectual property rights IP-rights based on the nature of the protected object or achievement may be helpful. For that purpose, I come to the following division of IP-rights
First of all, between IP-rights that protect intellectual achievements, on the one hand, and IP-rights that protect economic achievements, on the other hand. Within the category of economic achievements a further distinction can be made between those economic achievements that consist of a production – the result of labour, skill and money – and those that function as a distinctive sign, like a trade mark, trade name or geographical indication.