THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,
Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Articles 53(1), 62 and 114 thereof,
Having regard to the proposal from the European Commission,
After transmission of the draft legislative act to the national parliaments,
Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee (1),
Acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure (2),
(1) Publicly accessible libraries, educational establishments and museums, as well as archives, film or audio heritage institutions and public-service broadcasting organisations, established in the Member States, are engaged in large-scale digitisation of their collections or archives in order to create European Digital Libraries. They contribute to the preservation and dissemination of European cultural heritage, which is also important for the creation of European Digital Libraries, such as Europeana. Technologies for mass digitisation of print materials and for search and indexing enhance the research value of the libraries' collections. Creating large online libraries facilitates electronic search and discovery tools which open up new sources of discovery for researchers and academics who would otherwise have to content themselves with more traditional and analogue search methods.
(2) The need to promote free movement of knowledge and innovation in the internal market is an important component of the Europe 2020 Strategy, as set out in the Communication from the Commission entitled ‧Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth‧, which includes as one of its flagship initiatives the development of a Digital Agenda for Europe.
(3) Creating a legal framework to facilitate the digitisation and dissemination of works and other subject-matter which are protected by copyright or related rights and for which no rightholder is identified or for which the rightholder, even if identified, is not located — so-called orphan works — is a key action of the Digital Agenda for Europe, as set out in the Communication from the Commission entitled ‧A Digital Agenda for Europe‧. This Directive targets the specific problem of the legal determination of orphan work status and its consequences in terms of the permitted users and permitted uses of works or phonograms considered to be orphan works.
(4) This Directive is without prejudice to specific solutions being developed in the Member States to address larger mass digitisation issues, such as in the case of so-called ‧out-of-commerce‧ works. Such solutions take into account the specificities of different types of content and different users and build upon the consensus of the relevant stakeholders. This approach has also been followed in the Memorandum of Understanding on key principles on the digitisation and making available of out-of-commerce works, signed on 20 September 2011 by representatives of European libraries, authors, publishers and collecting societies and witnessed by the Commission. This Directive is without prejudice to that Memorandum of Understanding, which calls on Member States and the Commission to ensure that voluntary agreements concluded between users, rightholders and collective rights management organisations to licence the use of out-of-commerce works on the basis of the principles contained therein benefit from the requisite legal certainty in a national and cross-border context.
(5) Copyright is the economic foundation for the creative industry, since it stimulates innovation, creation, investment and production. Mass digitisation and dissemination of works is therefore a means of protecting Europe's cultural heritage. Copyright is an important tool for ensuring that the creative sector is rewarded for its work.
(6) The rightholders' exclusive rights of reproduction of their works and other protected subject-matter and of making them available to the public, as harmonised under Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society (3), necessitate the prior consent of rightholders to the digitisation and the making available to the public of a work or other protected subject-matter.
(7) In the case of orphan works, it is not possible to obtain such prior consent to the carrying-out of acts of reproduction or of making available to the public.
(8) Different approaches in the Member States to the recognition of orphan work status can present obstacles to the functioning of the internal market and the use of, and cross-border access to, orphan works. Such different approaches can also result in restrictions on the free movement of goods and services which incorporate cultural content. Therefore, ensuring the mutual recognition of such status is appropriate, since it will allow access to orphan works in all Member States.
(9) In particular, a common approach to determining the orphan work status and the permitted uses of orphan works is necessary in order to ensure legal certainty in the internal market with respect to the use of orphan works by publicly accessible libraries, educational establishments and museums, as well as by archives, film or audio heritage institutions and public-service broadcasting organisations.
(10) Cinematographic or audiovisual works and phonograms in the archives of public-service broadcasting organisations and produced by them include orphan works. Taking into account the special position of broadcasters as producers of phonograms and audiovisual material and the need to adopt measures to limit the phenomenon of orphan works in the future, it is appropriate to set a cut-off date for the application of this Directive to works and phonograms in the archives of broadcasting organisations.
(11) Cinematographic and audiovisual works and phonograms contained in the archives of public-service broadcasting organisations and produced by them, should for the purposes of this Directive be regarded as including cinematographic and audiovisual works and phonograms which are commissioned by such organisations for the exclusive exploitation by them or other co-producing public-service broadcasting organisations. Cinematographic and audiovisual works and phonograms contained in the archives of public-service broadcasting organisations which have not been produced or commissioned by such organisations, but which those organisations have been authorised to use under a licensing agreement, should not fall within the scope of this Directive.
(12) For reasons of international comity, this Directive should apply only to works and phonograms that are first published in the territory of a Member State or, in the absence of publication, first broadcast in the territory of a Member State or, in the absence of publication or broadcast, made publicly accessible by the beneficiaries of this Directive with the consent of the rightholders. In the latter case, this Directive should only apply provided that it is reasonable to assume that the rightholders would not oppose the use allowed by this Directive.
(13) Before a work or phonogram can be considered an orphan work, a diligent search for the rightholders in the work or phonogram, including rightholders in works and other protected subject-matter that are embedded or incorporated in the work or phonogram, should be carried out in good faith. Member States should be permitted to provide that such diligent search may be carried out by the organisations referred to in this Directive or by other organisations. Such other organisations may charge for the service of carrying out a diligent search.
(14) It is appropriate to provide for a harmonised approach concerning such diligent search in order to ensure a high level of protection of copyright and related rights in the Union. A diligent search should involve the consultation of sources that supply information on the works and other protected subject-matter as determined, in accordance with this Directive, by the Member State where the diligent search has to be carried out. In so doing, Member States could refer to the diligent search guidelines agreed in the context of the High Level Working Group on Digital Libraries established as part of the i2010 digital library initiative.
(15) In order to avoid duplication of search efforts, a diligent search should be carried out in the Member State where the work or phonogram was first published or, in cases where no publication has taken place, where it was first broadcast. The diligent search in respect of cinematographic or audiovisual works the producer of which has his headquarters or habitual residence in a Member State should be carried out in that Member State. In the case of cinematographic or audiovisual works which are co-produced by producers established in different Member States, the diligent search should be carried out in each of those Member States. With regard to works and phonograms which have neither been published nor broadcast but which have been made publicly accessible by the beneficiaries of this Directive with the consent of the rightholders, the diligent search should be carried out in the Member State where the organisation that made the work or phonogram publicly accessible with the consent of the rightholder is established. Diligent searches for the rightholders in works and other protected subject-matter that are embedded or incorporated in a work or phonogram should be carried out in the Member State where the diligent search for the work or phonogram containing the embedded or incorporated work or other protected subject-matter is carried out. Sources of information available in other countries should also be consulted if there is evidence to suggest that relevant information on rightholders is to be found in those other countries. The carrying-out of diligent searches may generate various kinds of information, such as a search record and the result of the search. The search record should be kept on file in order for the relevant organisation to be able to substantiate that the search was diligent.
(16) Member States should ensure that the organisations concerned keep records of their diligent searches and that the results of such searches, consisting in particular of any finding that a work or phonogram is to be considered an orphan work within the meaning of this Directive, as well as information on the change of status and on the use which those organisations make of orphan works, are collected and made available to the public at large, in particular through the recording of the relevant information in an online database. Considering in particular the pan-European dimension, and in order to avoid duplication of efforts, it is appropriate to make provision for the creation of a single online database for the Union containing such information and for making it available to the public at large in a transparent manner. This can enable both the organisations which are carrying out diligent searches and the rightholders easily to access such information. The database could also play an important role in preventing and bringing to an end possible copyright infringements, particularly in the case of changes to the orphan work status of the works and phonograms. Under Regulation (EU) No 386/2012 (4), the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (‧the Office‧) is entrusted with certain tasks and activities, financed by making use of its own budgetary means, aimed at facilitating and supporting the activities of national authorities, the private sector and the Union institutions in the fight against, including the prevention of, infringement of intellectual property rights.
In particular, pursuant to point (g) of Article 2(1) of that Regulation, those tasks include providing mechanisms which help to improve the online exchange of relevant information between the Member States' authorities concerned and fostering cooperation between those authorities. It is therefore appropriate to rely on the Office to establish and manage the European database containing information related to orphan works referred to in this Directive.
(17) There can be several rightholders in respect of a particular work or phonogram, and works and phonograms can themselves include other works or protected subject-matter. This Directive should not affect the rights of identified and located rightholders. If at least one rightholder has been identified and located, a work or phonogram should not be considered an orphan work. The beneficiaries of this Directive should only be permitted to use a work or phonogram one or more of the rightholders in which are not identified or not located, if they are authorised to carry out the acts of reproduction and of making available to the public covered by Articles 2 and 3 respectively of Directive 2001/29/EC by those rightholders that have been identified and located, including the rightholders of works and other protected subject-matter which are embedded or incorporated in the works or phonograms. Rightholders that have been identified and located can give this authorisation only in relation to the rights that they themselves hold, either because the rights are their own rights or because the rights were transferred to them, and should not be able to authorise under this Directive any use on behalf of rightholders that have not been identified and located. Correspondingly, when previously non-identified or non-located rightholders come forward in order to claim their rights in the work or phonogram, the lawful use of the work or phonogram by the beneficiaries can continue only if those rightholders give their authorisation to do so under Directive 2001/29/EC in relation to the rights that they hold.
(18) Rightholders should be entitled to put an end to the orphan work status in the event that they come forward to claim their rights in the work or other protected subject-matter. Rightholders that put an end to the orphan work status of a work or other protected subject-matter should receive fair compensation for the use that has been made of their works or other protected subject-matter under this Directive, to be determined by the Member State where the organisation that uses an orphan work is established. Member States should be free to determine the circumstances under which the payment of such compensation may be organised, including the point in time at which the payment is due. For the purposes of determining the possible level of fair compensation, due account should be taken, inter alia, of Member States' cultural promotion objectives, of the non-commercial nature of the use made by the organisations in question in order to achieve aims related to their public-interest missions, such as promoting learning and disseminating culture, and of the possible harm to rightholders.
(19) If a work or phonogram has been wrongly found to be an orphan work, following a search which was not diligent, the remedies for copyright infringement in Member States' legislation, provided for in accordance with the relevant national provisions and Union law, remain available.
(20) In order to promote learning and the dissemination of culture, Member States should provide for an exception or limitation in addition to those provided for in Article 5 of Directive 2001/29/EC. That exception or limitation should permit certain organisations, as referred to in point (c) of Article 5(2) of Directive 2001/29/EC and film or audio heritage institutions which operate on a non-profit making basis, as well as public-service broadcasting organisations, to reproduce and make available to the public, within the meaning of that Directive, orphan works, provided that such use fulfils their public interest missions, in particular the preservation of, the restoration of, and the provision of cultural and educational access to, their collections, including their digital collections. Film or audio heritage institutions should, for the purposes of this Directive, cover organisations designated by Member States to collect, catalogue, preserve and restore films and other audiovisual works or phonograms forming part of their cultural heritage. Public-service broadcasters should, for the purposes of this Directive, cover broadcasters with a public-service remit as conferred, defined and organised by each Member State. The exception or limitation established by this Directive to permit the use of orphan works is without prejudice to the exceptions and limitations provided for in Article 5 of Directive 2001/29/EC. It can be applied only in certain special cases which do not conflict with the normal exploitation of the work or other protected subject-matter and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the rightholder.
(21) In order to incentivise digitisation, the beneficiaries of this Directive should be allowed to generate revenues in relation to their use of orphan works under this Directive in order to achieve aims related to their public-interest missions, including in the context of public-private partnership agreements.
(22) Contractual arrangements may play a role in fostering the digitisation of European cultural heritage, it being understood that publicly accessible libraries, educational establishments and museums, as well as archives, film or audio heritage institutions and public-service broadcasting organisations, should be allowed, with a view to undertaking the uses permitted under this Directive, to conclude agreements with commercial partners for the digitisation and making available to the public of orphan works. Those agreements may include financial contributions by such partners. Such agreements should not impose any restrictions on the beneficiaries of this Directive as to their use of orphan works and should not grant the commercial partner any rights to use, or control the use of, the orphan works.
(23) In order to foster access by the Union's citizens to Europe's cultural heritage, it is also necessary to ensure that orphan works which have been digitised and made available to the public in one Member State may also be made available to the public in other Member States. Publicly accessible libraries, educational establishments and museums, as well as archives, film or audio heritage institutions and public-service broadcasting organisations that use an orphan work in order to achieve their public-interest missions should be able to make the orphan work available to the public in other Member States.
(24) This Directive is without prejudice to the arrangements in the Member States concerning the management of rights such as extended collective licences, legal presumptions of representation or transfer, collective management or similar arrangements or a combination of them, including for mass digitisation.
(25) Since the objective of this Directive, namely ensuring legal certainty with respect to the use of orphan works, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States and can therefore, by reason of the need for uniformity of the rules governing the use of orphan works, be better achieved at Union level, the Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty on European Union. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, as set out in that Article, this Directive does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve that objective,
HAVE ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE:
(1) OJ C 376, 22.12.2011, p. 66.
(2) Position of the European Parliament of 13 September 2012 (not yet published in the Official Journal) and decision of the Council of 4 October 2012.
(3) OJ L 167, 22.6.2001, p. 10.
(4) Regulation (EU) No 386/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 April 2012 on entrusting the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (Trade Marks and Designs) with tasks related to the enforcement of intellectual property rights, including the assembling of public and private-sector representatives as a European Observatory on Infringements of Intellectual Property Rights (OJ L 129, 16.5.2012, p. 1).