Annex

The sources referred to in Article 3(2) include the following:

(1) for published books:
(a) legal deposit, library catalogues and authority files maintained by libraries and other institutions;
(b) the publishers' and authors' associations in the respective country;
(c) existing databases and registries, WATCH (Writers, Artists and their Copyright Holders), the ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and databases listing books in print;
(d) the databases of the relevant collecting societies, in particular reproduction rights organisations;
(e) sources that integrate multiple databases and registries, including VIAF (Virtual International Authority Files) and ARROW (Accessible Registries of Rights Information and Orphan Works);
 

(2) for newspapers, magazines, journals and periodicals:
(a) the ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) for periodical publications;
(b) indexes and catalogues from library holdings and collections;
(c) legal deposit;
(d) the publishers' associations and the authors' and journalists' associations in the respective country;
(e) the databases of relevant collecting societies including reproduction rights organisations;
 

(3) for visual works, including fine art, photography, illustration, design, architecture, sketches of the latter works and other such works that are contained in books, journals, newspapers and magazines or other works:
(a) the sources referred to in points (1) and (2);
(b) the databases of the relevant collecting societies, in particular for visual arts, and including reproduction rights organisations;
(c) the databases of picture agencies, where applicable;
 

(4) for audiovisual works and phonograms:
(a) legal deposit;
(b) the producers' associations in the respective country;
(c) databases of film or audio heritage institutions and national libraries;
(d) databases with relevant standards and identifiers such as ISAN (International Standard Audiovisual Number) for audiovisual material, ISWC (International Standard Music Work Code) for musical works and ISRC (International Standard Recording Code) for phonograms;
(e) the databases of the relevant collecting societies, in particular for authors, performers, phonogram producers and audiovisual producers;
(f) credits and other information appearing on the work's packaging;
(g) databases of other relevant associations representing a specific category of rightholders.