Illegal IPTV in the European Union – Research on Online business models infringing Intellectual Property Rights – Phase 3 (November 2019). From the executive summary: "Assessment has been carried out for the whole EU-28 market as well as for each Member State.
Main findings suggest that:
- 3.6 % Europeans (13.7 million of the EU-28 population) stream unauthorised IPTV
- EUR 941.7 million Unlawful revenue generated by copyright infringing IPTV providers in 2018
- EUR 5.74 Average single user spends per month on illegal IPTV
The scale of unauthorised IPTV consumption varies greatly within the Member States. Countries most affected by online illegal IPTV are the Netherlands and Sweden, where almost 9 % of the population is estimated to access unauthorised IPTV. Romania (0.7 %) and Bulgaria (1.3 %) are least affected by illegal IPTV.
When assessing illegal revenue, it becomes apparent that size of market in terms of total population is an important factor. Users in the United Kingdom, France and Germany alone on average spend EUR 532.4 million, accounting for 57 % total revenue made by unauthorised IPTV subscription providers.
Average single user spending on unauthorised IPTV varies significantly among EU countries. Consumers in countries such as Finland, the Netherlands and France are willing to pay more than EUR 6 per month to view unauthorised IPTV. Conversely, people in Slovakia, Hungary and Poland tend to spend only EUR 2.5 per month. It is obvious that consumers vary not only in their willingness to infringe but also in their willingness to pay to access illegal IPTV content. Many factors ought to be considered when defining diverse illegal IPTV price rates, including online piracy rate, perception to infringement, average income and prices charged to access IPTV on legal sources."